教程/COURSE
Female Character Production Guide(花魁原创翻译,转载请注明)
发布于 2018/07/02 发表者 [ hiccupfeifei ] 关注 浏览 ( 9658 )  13  347

转载一份外网看到的图文+视频教程,作者“Donna Urdinov小姐姐 ”分享了一些跟人人体结构方面的知识,大家可以看下,还是蛮不错的!英文水平有限,根据个人理解意思给大家翻译了下,方便下你们这些外语不好的渣渣(别介意。。我也是学渣)~~如有翻译错的地方请见谅!

Donna Urdinov shared some of her recommendations and anatomy tips, which will help you make your 3d characters a little better!

Donna Urdinov 分享了一些她觉得不错的人体结构方面的知识点,希望可以帮助你在做3D角色的时候会做的更好!


Introduction

Hey guys, I’m Donna Urdinov, a half Macedonian, half Slovakian artist with a focus in 3D Character Art. I’m currently working as a freelancer, and have worked on projects ranging from cinematics, to commercials, to VR, to 3D printed doll making, but most are not available to the public just yet.

大家好!我叫Donna Urdinov ,是一名自由3D自由艺术家,是半个马其顿人。参与了很多电影,广告,VR,3D玩具打印等一些项目,大部分还是一些还未公开发布的项目。


I completed my post-secondary education at the Gnomon School of VFX, however due to being on a student VISA, I had to go back to Macedonia, which is where I currently reside. Prior to Gnomon, I had just completed my high school education in which I had very little formal art training, and virtually no experience in 3D, so I would say that I learned a lot over the last 3 years.

我完成了在“Gnomon School of VFX”学校的学业!由于签证问题必须回到马其顿,那里是我现在目前居中的地方,在去Gnomon 学习之前,我刚上完高中,基本没受过什么正规艺术教育,而且几乎没有任何3D方面的经验,所以我想说的是,过去3年里面我学到了很多!

donna-urdinov-donnaurdinov-audreyhepburn-lineup-1.jpg

Starting a project

开始做一个项目

Before I get into the specifics about female anatomy, we need to take a step back.

在深入研究女性人体结构之前,我们先反过头说一下!


The first and most important step to creating any form of art is deciding what it is that you are trying to communicate. I call this decision “ethos”, the spiritual brother of “thesis”. They both serve the same purpose, and that is to answer the same question of “what are you trying to show/say?”. I cannot stress how important it is to ground yourself and give yourself a direction, whether that direction is broad or very specific. It will keep you from becoming indecisive, leading to a lot of redoing and time wasting.

在创建任何一种艺术表现的第一步,也是重要的一部就是决定你要表达的是什么。我把这个叫做“ethos”精神气质!也叫“thesis”做论文,这2个都有几个相同目的,也是回答“你想要说什么或者表达什么?”创作之前给自己一个方向性是多么的重要,不管是具体一些的还是大概的,有了方向在创作的时候就不会优柔寡断,也不会浪费时间。

donna-urdinov-militarygirl-render.jpg

Tools of communication

沟通工具

So you have an idea of what you want your ethos to be, but what’s the next step? Well first, gathering reference. It’s absolutely imperative to gather reference for real people, photographs are great, 3D scans are even better. Then you want to find elements that support your ethos such as proportion, anatomy, gesture, silhouette, rhythm, shape language, lighting, expression, clothing, and the list goes on and on. It’s important to think of it like an essay, your paragraphs have to support and expand on the thesis, but even if you have a very well written paragraph and does not fit in with your essay, the final result incoherent.

那么当你有了创作的想法该如何进行下一步呢?首先,收集素材资料(参考图)收集真实人物的参考资料是觉得必需的,照片很好的GOOD,3D扫描参考更好一些,然后在找一些类似:解刨学,手势,轮廓,节奏,形状语言,灯光,表情,服装之类的等等。当成毕业论文一样去收集资料准备毕设!你的创作作品必须有这些基础的知识来支撑,不然做出来结果也是不理想的。

(这里我多BB几句作者的意思,就是做东西前,多找一些参考图,人体,衣服,武器,能多就多,不要凭空想象,基于真实的物体去创作,作品的真实度就大大可信,想着大家看到的好莱坞电影也好,还是3A级游戏,怪物啊,科幻的飞船,都是基于现实的东西加以2次设计而出来的,不是空想,怪物还是有腿有手,只是创作者夸张了手的数量,或者少了根手指而已)


FemaleBodyCharacteristics_donnaUrdinov.png

The morphology of the female body

女性身体结构

Morphology is a concept that refers to what forms actually appear as, instead of what the underlying structure is. It’s imperative to know the underlying muscles of course, but there is a lot of value in knowing how forms in the body manifest themselves (rhythm and flow) layered with fat, bone and skin. Above are two illustrations to help people understand the directionality that the forms they are creating should flow in, as well as areas where women typically put on weight. I’d also like to point out that one difference between male and female anatomy is that due to higher levels of estrogen, cellulite is much more visible on women, even if they are thin, this is especially true in the upper thigh/buttock area.

这里说的“”形体“”是一个概念说法,说的是大型表现,而不是底层的肌肉结构什么的。当然了,我们有必要了解和学习人体的肌肉解刨结构,但是要知道身体骨头,肌肉,脂肪是如何有“节奏走势”的表现人体是非常有价值的。

(继续BB两句,就是学习人体不要去刻意在乎人体肌肉解刨,我们美术在做的事情还是跟形状打交道,人体也是有简单图形组成的复杂形体而已,深入了解人体结构固然重要,但是美术对于形状的“”美“”更为主要!)


Everybody’s body is different, so not all of those fat pads will be affected equally, the same thing with bones, not everybody’s bones protrude at the same intensity, so you should analyze your reference and see what the distribution of each of these characteristics is. Whatever the distribution of fat and muscle tone is, however, will not change the direction of the flow of forms, however, it will affect the rhythm and proximity of those forms.

每个人的体型都是不同的,脂肪的胖瘦不同,骨头的形状不同,所以你应该分析你的参考图去区分这些不同的特征性,然而不管人的肌肉大小胖瘦是怎样的都不会影响人体的形状的“结构走势”

bodytypes_donnaUrdinov.png

Female Body Types

女性身体形状种类

The female body comes in all sorts of body shapes, however, there are general body type groups that we can acknowledge to make our lives easier. All of these are defined by the relationships between the shoulders+chest, waist and the hips. A thing to keep in mind is that a higher body fat percentage or more muscle mass is going to exaggerate the inherent shapes in these body-types.

女性身体有很多不同的类型,我们可以按不同类型分成不同的形状组就方便很多,这些都是由肩膀,胸部,腰部和臀部之间的关系决定的,记住一点,较高的身体和发达的肌肉或者更胖的体型会夸张这些基本体型。

breastChestAandShoulderBreakdown_donnaUrdinov.png

The breasts, chest, and shoulders

乳房,胸部,和肩膀

When it comes to female-specific anatomy, this is one of the areas that I see people misunderstanding a lot. Two of the most common mistakes I see is people treating the breast tissue and the pecs as a uniform mass, often-times resulting in a strong S curve from the pecs to the breasts, and people seeming to be afraid of giving women pectoral muscles, giving the armpit area a U shape.

女性身体结构有一个大家经常误解的地方,2个常见的错误就是胸部乳房和胸肌当成一个形体结构去看待,通常从胸部到乳房会有一个强烈的S曲线结构,有些人害怕把女性胸部给做出胸肌来,应该需要给腋窝区域一个U型结构来表现胸肌的。


Another aspect that I see very much misunderstood is how shoulders on women look. Unless you are creating a woman who works out a lot/has very developed deltoids, you are going to see this bulbous form pop up in the shoulders which are the head of the Humerus bone. A majority of women actually retain a lot of fat in the upper arm area giving them a soft look, while still showing the definition of the bottom of the deltoid. A great example of this is Marilyn Monroe, if you look at her shoulders you will see what I’m talking about.

另外一个错误我经常看到就是肩膀的地方,除非你创作一个经常锻炼的女性,有着强壮的三角肌,一个明显的球型结构会出现在肩膀上,实际上这是肱骨的骨头,大多数女性上臂脂肪比较多,看上去会很柔和柔软,同时也表现了三角肌的形状,可以看下玛丽莲梦露的肩膀你就知道我说的是啥意思了。

hipShapeandProportion_donnaUrdinov.png

The hips

胯部

Another landmark of the female form is the hips. One of the biggest differences between the biological function of men and women in childbirth, which is why women tend to have wider hips than men. The two anatomical features that affect the shape of the hips is the pelvis, or ilium, flare (the bit of bone that tends to protrude at the hips) and the position of the great trochanter. Even in women with an inverted triangle body-shape, the hips will probably flare out wider than in a typical male pelvis, however, you have to be careful with how you treat the rest of the body to still give it a feminine feel, even if say the woman is muscular. 

女性另一个明显的形体是臀部,区别在于男性和女性的生理结构,女性比男性盆骨大是因为需要分娩生孩子,有2个明显特征性的地方会影响骨盆的形状,一个是盆骨另一个是髌骨,在臀部突出的骨骼以及大转子的位置。即使女性身体是倒三角的体型,臀部也可能比正常男性还要更宽大一些,也必须注意到女性其他的身体部位,要有女性的特征感觉,即使是个强壮有肌肉的女人。

kneeBreakdown_donnaUrdinov.png

The knees

膝盖

Now I know that knees aren’t a unique characteristic of women, however, I find that it’s extremely difficult to find a comprehensive guide on the morphology of knees, instead of simply the underlying anatomy. It’s also more common for women to retain more fat in that area, especially compared to men who are more fit, which is the CG world is the standard male.

膝盖的结构并不是女性特有的结构,但是现在比较难找到关于膝盖形状的一些全面性知识,而不是基本的解刨学,与正常男性相比较的话女性膝盖的地方会有更多的脂肪是很常见的,在我们做CG里面的标准人体一般都是男性。


The most brilliant description I’ve ever heard of knees is mushed cherub faces, which is exactly how I started to approach knees from that point on. Knees are hard to understand because they look quite different when the leg is bent, and more importantly, everybody’s knees look vastly different. Even on the same person, you can find vast asymmetries on a person’s knees, however, I tried to illustrate a guide on how I approach sculpting them, and some insight into knees that pop out more is flatter, or have different fat distributions.

膝盖结构最绝妙的描述就是当做一个天使的脸儿,这正是我那个时候了解膝盖所使用的方法,膝盖结构比较难了解,因为当腿部弯曲的时候形状就变了,还有一个是每个人的膝盖看起来都不太一样,即使是同一个人两边的膝盖也是不对称的,这里我试着给大家演示我是如何了解和塑造膝盖的,这是我的一些见解。


请下载附件是我ZBRUSH演示的一些女性人体雕刻视频(17分钟,无解说)



Sculpting the body

身体雕刻

“Ok Donna, this is all great information but I don’t really know how to even approach sculpting this….

好吧,Donna!这些知识很有用,但是我真的不知道该如何做(道理都懂,就是不知道咋下手)。。。

Don’t worry!! If you take a few hours out of every month and do anatomy studies here and there, really trying to understand your reference, the mileage will kick in. But always remember to work smarter, not harder. Don’t try to invent anatomy if you don’t understand it, instead take the time to analyze the forms. However, for those interested in how I sculpted this body from a simple base mesh, I recorded the process, which overall took me about 4 hours and 15 mins. I did however later go back and tweaked some proportions and smaller features.

不用担心的,如果你每个月抽出几个小时时间去研究解刨和人体结构的参考资料,就会从中受益,但是要记住一点,聪明的去做而不是花力气去做(胆大心细)。如果你不了解人体结构不要瞎JB做,不要试图去发明它,是要花时间去分析(搞懂),至于我是如何用一个基础模型去雕刻身体的人,我录下了整个过程,总共花费了我4小时15分钟,不过后面我自己回去又调整一些比例和结构特征。(附件下载,作者剪辑成了17分钟,无配音,无解说)

lightingTurnaround_donnaUrdinov.jpg

Lighting

灯光

 If your final product isn’t going to stay inside of ZBrush, it’s a good idea to export it out to the renderer or engine you’ll be finalizing it in. In my case, I’m using Marmoset Toolbag 3 to check and see if all my forms are reading well through the camera and some nice lighting and a simple skin material. Marmoset can handle several million polygons, so I directly exported out my ~5 mil poly body along with a simple block-in for the hair, eyes, and teeth. The texture is a simple polypaint. This way I can see if there are any areas that I should go back to and work on some more.

如果你最终效果图不是在ZBRUSH去做,那么最好导出到其他渲染器去渲图,我这个例子是在Marmoset3里面完成的,测试灯光和皮肤效果很好,Marmoset可以处理几百万的面数,所以我直接输出了5 千万面数的身体模型和牙齿头发一些简单面数模型,贴图就是ZBRUSH中的polypaint绘制的,通过这种方法检测模型,有问题可以随时在返回去调整。

proportions_donnaUrdinov.png

Proportions

比例

Now that you have finished sculpting your body, you might be second guessing if your proportions look good. For the Idealized figure, I went with the proportions outlined in Andrew Loomis’ ideal female proportion chart, however, I wasn’t too thrilled with the result, considering that I wanted to go for a more realistic looking figure. I analyzed like 10 different photos of women of varying proportions and heights, and none of them exceeded the 7.5 head measurement, even very tall supermodels. Likewise, with very short women, the cap off seems to be 6.5 heads (obviously this doesn’t apply to people affected by dwarfism), however I would say the average woman is between 7 and 7.5 heads tall. I ended up liking the Realistic Tall variant the most, which is the one I chose for posing.

现在身体雕刻完成了,你可能怀疑(不确定)你的身体比例是否合适,对于理想化的身材标准我推荐看下安德鲁·卢米斯(Andrew Loomis)的《理想女性比例图》(ideal female ratio chart)作为比例参考标准。但又考虑到更真实性的身材比例,这种方法并不是很特别好,我分析了10张不同比例的女性照片(真人),没有一张照片是超过7.5个头身比例的,甚至是很高的模特,同样对于非常矮的女性差不多是6.5个头身比例(排出有侏儒病的女性)我要说的是一般正常女性应该身高头身比例在7-7.5个头身比之间,最后的比例我还是喜欢现实的高个子(看上图示)

donnaUrdinov_posedViews.jpg


Posing

姿势

For the pose, I chose something fairly simple so I didn’t have to resculpt much since I used the transpose master in ZBrush to do it. A couple of things I kept in mind while posing was making sure the head was on top of the center of gravity, that the line from the crotch to the belly button was straight. All the twisting that happens in the torso tends to happen between the bottom of the sternum and the belly button. The reason this happens is because the belly button is situated right above the pelvic mass, which since it’s kind of like a bowl, can’t deform, and neither can the ribcage (the ribcage only deforms when it’s expanding or contracting as the lungs pump air in and out, however it cannot twist).

对于这个姿势来说,我简单的调整了一下,所以我不需要重新雕刻做太多修改,我是在ZBRUSH使用了transpose master这个插件去做的,摆姿势的时候几个地方需要注意下,确保头部在整个身体重心的中心位置,胯部到肚脐是条直线的,躯干所有扭转的地方都是在胸骨和髋骨之间,因为胸骨和盆骨是不会变形的(胸腔因为肺部呼吸会扩张和收缩,但也不会造成身体的扭曲变形)


Adding some basic form of clothing

添加一些简单衣服

Considering that many non-art specific social media platforms enforce censorship towards nudity, once your anatomy sculpts start looking a little bit too realistic, some random person can report your post, and sometimes even the algorithms can auto-flag your work and instantly remove it. This is why you might want to consider giving your characters some clothing that won’t cover up all the hard work you put into sculpting their lovely body.

考虑现在一些艺术类社交媒体对图片的审核,一旦你的人体做的写实了,有些人就会举报你!(喷子)有的网站也会自动标记你的作品然后自动删除了,这就是为什么需要添加些简单衣服,其实这些衣服掩盖了你做人体的一些努力成果。


It’s important to note that most underwear has some form of elastic band so that it can adjust to slightly varying sizes, this, of course, leads to pressure on the flesh. It’ll give your character a more believable look if you try to show that depression in the skin, this applies to armbands, stockings, belts, whatever type of clothing that could cause tension on the skin, this doesn’t apply to bones, however, areas with less fat and more muscle will still experience pressure, just not as deep as a more fatty area would.

需要注意的是一些大部分内衣都是带松紧带的,这样可以调整适应不同尺寸,内衣就会对皮肤造成挤压,这样做可以让你的角色表现出更多可信度,类似袜子,腰带,还有其他一些衣服都会对皮肤造成影响,骨头不会受衣服影响变形,不同脂肪的胖瘦都会受衣服的松紧产生影响。


Conclusion

结语(终于翻完了。。)

A lot of these principles apply to both female and male anatomy, however, I think because the majority of the industry right now is composed of men, it’s a little harder to find solid information on how these principles affect the female physique. All of these principles apply to both realistic and stylized work, only that with stylized your decision-making skills have to be even sharper. The simpler the shape language, the more obvious your mistakes will be. It is also important to note that in real life, people’s faces might not match their bodies, or say their feet don’t look like they match their legs, but you are not creating reality, you are designing a narrative. It’s always important to look at the reference, but to build on top of it and make it more interesting, not to be a slave to it. There is much more room for information to be covered, however, time is money and it would take me a lot of time to go over everything in detail, however, I did want to give back to this awesome community that has taught me a lot.

很多我说的一些知识点都适用于女性和男性解刨结构。但是我认为现在CG行业大多数都是以男性结构来主导的,关于女性结构的内容就比较少了些,这里说的知识点适用于写实类体型也适合风格化的体型(卡通)风格化的处理只是把形状处理的更加棱角明确,越简单的形状越容易出错,现实中也是同样的道理,人们脸可能看起来他的身体跟头不匹配,脚不像他们的腿,但是你不是创造写实而是在设计一个故事。参看参考资料很重要,在这些参考上在去进行创造构想,让你的想法变的有趣,而不照搬参考图成为它的奴隶。还有很多内容需要说的,但是时间有限,时间就是钱,我要花很多时间研究每一个地方,但是做这个教程我确实是为了回报社会(小姐姐很棒)


I hope that you guys found this guide helpful and easy to digest! Don’t be afraid to shoot me a message, especially if you’d like to see more tutorials.

希望这篇教程对你们会有帮助,教程很简单也比较容易了解,不要害怕给我发消息,尤其是如果你们想看到更多我出的教程的话!



教程小姐姐Donna Urdinov A站地址:https://www.artstation.com/donnaxyz


hiccup原创翻译,转载请注明出处,谢谢

2018-07-12 修改了一些错别字。。。

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毒液2018/08/21 21:46

谢谢分享好教程资源

express2018/08/21 14:44


难得全文翻译,学习了辛苦辛苦。

luojian2018/08/15 10:45

谢谢分享好教程资源

ttdasd0042018/08/01 09:26

学到很多

bachling2018/07/31 09:56

好教程~

hiccupfeifei2018/07/12 22:21
@ZZYY360 :

哇,居然全部翻译了,真是辛苦啊

么么哒,爱你们~
ZZYY3602018/07/12 21:49

哇,居然全部翻译了,真是辛苦啊

put4u2018/07/05 18:28

看看吧,能给下就。

a621829752018/07/05 15:30

谢谢

f9020092018/07/05 14:43


Michael5482018/07/04 14:57

感谢分享!

果冻不是布丁2018/07/04 10:11

谢谢分享 挺好的教程

Lee2018/07/03 18:59

多谢分享。